We routinely audit tax returns and business tax records to ensure compliance with Virginia law. The selection of your return or account for audit does not mean you will owe additional tax. Audits frequently conclude with no additional liability found, or a refund to the taxpayer. Many of our examinations do not require a visit to your home or business, and can be resolved by phone or letter.

Your Rights and Responsibilities in an Audit

The Virginia Taxpayer Bill of Rights grants every taxpayer specific rights during an audit. If you are selected for an audit, you have the right to:

  • Be informed of the audit process, the audit procedures, and appeal rights.
  • Have the audit conducted at a reasonable place and time, and completed in a timely manner.
  • Be provided with an explanation of any changes made during an audit.

If you receive an audit inquiry letter or a notice of a field audit, it is your responsibility to:

  • Respond to notices and provide requested documentation by the stated due date. Use the name, address and telephone number provided for all contacts during the audit.
  • Notify the auditor before the due date if you need additional time to respond.

Field Audits

A field audit is an on-site examination of returns and records. Virginia Tax auditors based in Virginia and in several locations across the country conduct field audits.


An auditor will notify you by letter if we select your return or account for an onsite audit. The auditor will describe the types of records that need to be made available, and will explain the planned audit method and procedures.

After you've been notified:

  • The auditor will make appointments with the owner or corporate officer responsible for tax compliance. The auditor may work with anyone designated by the taxpayer.
  • These audit appointments will include the day, time, and place of the appointment.
  • Audits are usually conducted at your place of business during normal work hours. In every case, we will work with you to minimize the impact of the audit on your schedule or your business operations.
  • You will be advised of the general type of records needed to start the audit.
  • You will be provided with a Virginia Notice of Field Audit Selection.

Before the audit, the auditor will:

  • Ensure you have a copy of the Virginia Taxpayer Bill of Rights and answer any questions you may have regarding your rights.
  • Discuss the operation of your business, ask how your records are maintained, and ask you to identify other issues which may affect the audit.
  • Discuss the specific audit process to be used.
  • Tour your place of business, if necessary.
  • Determine how your records will be reviewed.
  • Determine the method in which the audit will be conducted. The method the auditor chooses will depend on a number of factors, such as the type of tax, the accuracy and availability of records and the size and complexity of your business. We may conduct a detailed audit, which involves looking at all of your records, or we may look at a sample or portion of your records.

While conducting the audit, the auditor will:

  • Determine the audit period. Audits are usually conducted for a 3-year period, but may be expanded up to 6 years if returns are not filed when required.
  • Review your records and the returns you have filed.
  • If necessary, ask you to voluntarily waive the statute of limitations on the audit period. This is usually done if additional time is needed to conduct the audit. In addition, it can prevent issuing an assessment on unresolved factual issues that may be resolved through the audit process or informal review.
  • Explain departmental policy and its application to your business transactions.
  • Allow you adequate time to respond to our questions.

In concluding an audit we will:

  • Discuss our findings with you or send you a letter explaining any changes.
  • Explain any penalties to be billed.
  • Discuss future filing responsibilities and answer any questions you have concerning the audit.
  • Provide you with a copy of the audit report identifying issues to be corrected for future compliance as necessary.
  • Explain your rights to appeal should you disagree with the audit findings.

If our income tax audit raises an issue that affects your federal income tax, we may notify the IRS and will not create a bill until the issue is resolved at the federal level. If this procedure is used, the Audit Supervisor will discuss it with you.

Common Field Audit Issues and How You Can Avoid Them

Audit Issue What You Should Do
Missing Documentation
  • Review the list of required documents (e.g. invoices, contracts, exemption certificates, etc.) your auditor provides at the initiation of the audit.
  • Confirm with your auditor the period of time under audit – or what period of time those documents need to cover.
Regulatory and Tax Law Changes
Interest Calculations
  • Note that the accrual of interest during your audit is mandatory, and will continue until an assessment is made.
  • Remember that the interest is computed monthly based on the stated rate of that audit period. Older audit periods will have higher rates of interest assessed.
Confusion regarding audit statutes of limitation
  • Review Va. Code §58.1-634 at the start of an audit to familiarize yourself with the conditions that may constitute extending an audit period. (Generally, the Statute of Limitations is 3-6 years for most tax types. However, additional periods may be added to the end when there is a delay in completing fieldwork or finalizing the audit.)
Non-Profit Exemption Certificates
  • Carefully read your exemption certificates, and remember that nonprofits are not exempt from all sales tax liability. 
  • Note that business owners who permit nonprofits to purchase unauthorized tax-exempt goods and services will be responsible for paying the uncollected tax for those items. 


Desk Audits and Examinations

Many examinations of returns are conducted by mail. Typically an examiner will write to you to request additional information about items on your return, or to notify you of errors that need to be adjusted. You will have the opportunity to respond to a notice before a bill is issued.

Automated Programs

Certain governmental agencies furnish us information concerning taxpayers' returns. The largest source of such information is the IRS, but information may also be gathered from other federal, state, and local agencies. Information furnished by these sources is compared with Virginia tax returns to identify taxpayers who may have underpaid their Virginia tax liabilities or failed to file a return. All information received from other agencies, as well as information already in our files, is kept strictly confidential.

If we find a discrepancy in your tax return, we will send you a letter to:

  • Identify the nature of the problem and explain possible changes in your liability;
  • Invite you to provide additional information or explain why you disagree with these changes;
  • Give you a date by which you should respond;
  • Give you the name and telephone number of the Virginia Tax employee who is responsible for your case.

If you do not respond to the inquiry letter, or if you are unable to demonstrate that you do not owe additional tax, we will bill you for the additional tax, as well as applicable penalty and interest.

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